Resource Search Results - Exponent Philanthropy


Results for:   Topic: “Tax and Legal”  

Foundation Bylaws

Exponent Philanthropy cannot offer sample bylaws—there are many state variations and characteristics and needs of individual foundations—but the following overview does describe common sections and what a foundation board might expect within its own bylaws: Name—In some states, the first section gives the name of the foundation or other similar details required by state corporate... Read More

Taxable Expenditures

Taxable expenditures are grants or expenditures made by a private foundation that are either prohibited, or in Internal Revenue Service (IRS)-specified areas without following the strict IRS rules. The following list provides brief descriptions of those expenditures that are completely prohibited; the list after that provides additional requirements to avoid being taxable expenditures. The following... Read More

Nonprofit Sector 101

Nonprofit sector collectively describes the institutions and organizations in American society that are neither government nor business. Nonprofit is a layperson’s term describing a range of organizations—including private foundations—that contribute to the public good. The nonprofit sector in the United States contains more than 1.5 million nonprofit organizations comprising at least 7% of the U.S.... Read More

10 Ways Self-Dealing Can Creep Into a Foundation’s Work

The general rule is this: Certain insiders known as disqualified persons are prohibited from engaging in a specific list of transactions with a private foundation, unless exists a stated exception exists. If you are a board member, officer, or substantial contributor to a private foundation, you, your family members, and entities controlled by you must... Read More

Is Our Foundation Likely to Experience an IRS Audit?

Less than one-quarter of 1% of all tax returns filed by private foundations are examined by the Internal Revenue Service. Yet, certain states have seen an increase in attorney general inquiries (i.e., audits) into the operations of private foundations and components of the Form 990-PF, which usually accompanies a state filing. Attorney general audits can... Read More

Three Types of Audits

Foundations may undergo three types of audits: independent audits (those elected by your foundation); Internal Revenue Service (IRS) audits; and state-level audits. An independent audit happens when a foundation hires an outside auditor to assess its finances and show that it has internal controls and built-in checks and balances. Independent audits ensure that your foundation’s... Read More